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A Study to Compare The Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Associated with Smokeless Tobacco Consumption and Smoking

Sarita Ahwal, Gaddam Rachel Andrews, Ambuj Roy, R. Lakshmy


The aim of this study was to compare the cardiovascular disease risk factors amongst smokeless tobacco consumers, smokers and non-tobacco consumers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among smokeless tobacco consumers, smokers and non-tobacco consumers at AIIMS. Thirty exclusively smokeless tobacco consumers (group I), 30 exclusively smokers (group II) and 30 non-tobacco consumers (group III) were enrolled. Subjects included males who were between 35 and 60 years, who had been consuming tobacco for at least last 5 years (for group I and II), and who had no history of hypertension, diabetes or any cardiac/renal/endocrine/hepatic disorder. Data was collected using subject information sheet, structured interview and biophysiological measurements. Electrocardiogram was also performed in all subjects. When compared with non-tobacco consumers, the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in smokers (p=0.003, p=0.010) as well as in smokeless tobacco consumers (p=0.006, p=0.025). Compared with non-tobacco consumers, the adjusted risk of prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia for smokers was 9.20 (2.2–38.57 CI) and 5.34 (1.2–23.0 CI) respectively. Corresponding odds ratios for smokeless tobacco consumers were 6.97 (1.7–28.0 CI) and 6.37(1.4–27.3 CI) respectively. The study groups were comparable in terms of obesity and dysglycemia. None of the study subjects had any ischemic changes in ECG findings. Smokeless tobacco consumers and smokers had no statistically significant difference with regard to any of the CVD risk factors. Smokeless tobacco and smoking had comparable cardiovascular disease risk in terms of hypertension and dyslipidemia.

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