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An Update on the Virulence Factors of Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans A Systematic Review

Shikha Kler, Rajvir Malik

Abstract


Over the last 20 years, research on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) a periodontopathogen, has provided a tremendous amount of information as a major anaerobic, opportunistic pathogen. Elucidation of the virulence in Aa is especially difficult because of this bacteri pathogenicity being multifaceted, including both microbial and host factors and the inability to clearly define the disease state of many forms of destructive periodontal disease. The objectives of this study were to review the virulence factors of Aa considering the unique features of Aa when compared with other gram-negative bacteria and explicate the general aspects of the virulence factors of Aa and their mechanism in particular. A comprehensive search strategy of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the U.K. National Research Register and Conference Proceedings Citation Index) using keywords was performed. In addition, hand searches were made for several dental, microbiological and immunity journals not cataloged in the databases, and the reference lists from published articles were checked. It was concluded that virulence factors of Aa allows it to make contact with host tissues and cells, which are potentially important in the incidence of periodontal diseases.


Keywords: Adhesions, collagenase, genes, leucotoxin, surface-associated material


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