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Screening of Bone Mineral Density, Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Level in Hyperthyroid Females of North India

Supriti Bhatnagar, R. K. Srivastva, Shirin Jahan, Rahul Ranjan, Anil Kumar

Abstract


Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disease which plays a role in causing fracture especially in females. Hormonal dysfunction may be one of the possible causes of osteoporosis. Hyperthyroidism has been known to increase the risk of fracture especially in women both pre- and postmenopausal. The relation between hyperthyroidism and bone mineral density (BMD) is still unclear. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the effects of hyperthyroidism on long bones of females. Material and Methods: A total of ninety-one newly diagnosed female hyperthyroid patients and fifty-eight female euthyroid subjects with the age 20–60 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Thyroid hormones and vitamin D were estimated with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Serum calcium was estimated by Arsenazo III method. Dual electron X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique was used to measure the BMD at the femoral neck. X ray of femur was performed with MDX-100 (100 mA, 100 KVP Fixed X-Ray Machine). Results: In the present study, the serum calcium level (7.52±1.04 mg/dl versus 9.14±0.63 mg/dl, p<0.01) was found significantly high in group I hyperthyroid patients as compared to group II euthyroid subjects. Further, vitamin D level (42.41±9.26 ng/dl versus 21.91±13.6 ng/dl, p<0.01) and BMD (0.88±0.11 g/cm2 versus 0.95±0.09 g/cm2, p<0.01) in hyperthyroid patients were found significantly low as compared to euthyroid subjects. X ray of long bone (femur) in both the group participants showed a significant difference. Conclusion: Findings of the current study suggest that increased level of thyroid hormones was associated with increased level of calcium and decrease level of vitamin D. Furthermore, low BMD has been found in hyperthyroid patients, which in turn increases the risk of fracture in these patients. Furthermore, it is suggested that BMD, serum calcium and vitamin D should be evaluated continuously to decrease the risk of fracture in female with hyperthyroidism.

 

Keywords: hyperthyroid, bone mineral density (BMD), vitamin D, serum calcium level

 

Cite this Article

Bhatnagar S, Srivastva R K, Jahan S, et al. Screening of bone mineral density, serum calcium and vitamin D level in hyperthyroid females of North India. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Health Professions. 2018; 8(2): 49–56p.


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