Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UROLITHIASIS:

GURMEET SINGH SARLA

Abstract


Purpose: Stone formation commonly affects the urinary system.The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of stones in the renal system in both sexes, age groups affected, side incidence and the site of stone.

Materials and Methods: A total of 155 patients were included in the study who underwent Ultrasonography studies to detect the side, site and size of the stone in the urinary system.

Results: 118 patients (76.12%) were males and 37 patients (23.87%) were females. 76 patients (49.03%) had Right sided urolithiasis whereas 57 patients (36.77%) had Left sided urolithiasis. 22 patients (14.19%) had bilateral stones.90 patients (58.06%) had Renal stones, 30 patients (19.35%) had Ureteric  stones, 20 patients (12.90%) had Vesico-ureteric junction calculus, 11 patients (7.09%) had microconcretions and  4 patients (2.58%) had Pelvi- ureteric junction calculus. 31- 40 years was the most commonly affected age bracket wherein 56 patients (36.12%) were affected by urolithiasis. Size of calculi varied from sub millimetric to more than 10 mm. The most frequently found size of calculus measured in the range of 5.1-6 mm ( found in 21 patients , 13.54%).93 out of 155 symptomatic stones (85.54%) ranged between 1.1mm to 6mm. 

Conclusion: Urolithiasis more commonly affects males and the age group between31-40 years. Right sided urolithiasis is commoner although a significant number of patients had bilateral urolithiasis. Renal stones were commonest followed by lower ureteric stones. Calculi varied from sub millimetric to more than 10 mm. Stones smaller than 5 mm  generally pass, but larger stones require intervention.


Keywords


Urolithiasis, Epidemiology, stone size, Renal calculus

Full Text:

PDF

References


Saigal CS, Joyce G, Timilsina AR. Direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis in an employed population: opportunity for disease management? Kidney Int. 2005;68:1808–1814.

Sandegård E. Prognosis of stone in the ureter. Acta Chir Scand Suppl. 1956;219:1–67.

Preminger GM, Tiselius HG, Assimos DG, et al. 2007 Guideline for the management of ureteral calculi. Eur Urol. 2007;52:1610–1631.

Coe F, Keck E. The natural history of calcium urolithiasis. JAMA 1977;238:1519–1523

Hesse A, Bach D. Stuttgart: Thieme Verlag; 1982. Harnsteine.

Bichler K, Strohmaier WL, Eipper E, Lahme S. Bichler K, editor. Epidemiologie: Das Harnsteinleiden. GEK-Edition. Lehmanns Media - LOB.de. 2007;52:31–44.

Türk C, Knoll T, Petrik A. EAU guidelines on urolithiasis. www.uroweb.org. 2014

Trinchieri A. Epidemiology of urolithiasis: an update. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2008;5:101–106.

Knoll T, Schubert AB, Fahlenkamp D, Leusmann DB, Wendt-Nordahl G, Schubert G. Urolithiasis through the ages: data on more than 200,000 urinary stone analyses. J Urol. 2011;185:1304–1311.

Linder BJ, Rangel LJ, Krambeck AE. The effect of work location on urolithiasis in health care professionals. Urolithiasis. 2013;41:327–331.

Sorensen M, Harper J, Hsi R, et al. B-mode ultrasound versus color Doppler twinkling artifact in detecting kidney stones. J Endourol 2013;27:149–153

Fwu C, Eggers P, Kimmel P, et al. Emergency room visits, use of imaging and drugs for urolithiasis have increased in the United States. Kidney Int 2013;83: 479–486

Coll DM, Varanelli MJ, Smith RC. Relationship of spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi to stone size and location as revealed by unenhanced helical CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;178:101–103

Holdgate A, Pollock T. Systematic review of the relative efficacy of non-steroidal anti-infllammatory drugs and opioids in the treatment of acute renal colic. BMJ. 2004;328:1401.

Hollingsworth JM, Rogers MA, Kaufman SR, Bradford TJ, Saint S, Wei JT, et al. Medical therapy to facilitate urinary stone passage: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2006;368:1171–1179.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Research & Reviews: Journal of Surgery