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Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Glutathione in the Detoxification of Free Radicals

Haile Nega Mulata

Abstract


The aging process and disease progression are the result of cellular damage by free radicals. Our first lines of defense against free radical damage are the antioxidants. They are critical for keeping optimal health and wellbeing. The need for antioxidants becomes more critical with increased exposure to free radicals. Pollution, drugs, cigarette smoke, illness, stress, and even exercise can increase free radical exposure. The accumulation of free radicals produced from different types of exposures and physiological processes is termed as oxidative stress. The free radical scavenger antioxidants may prevent the oxidative stress by peroxidation, inhibiting free radicals and also by other mechanisms. Intracellular antioxidant enzymes and dietary antioxidant intake may help to maintain sufficient antioxidant status in the body. Antioxidants can decrease the oxidative damage directly via reacting with free radicals or indirectly by inhibiting the activity or expression of free radical generating enzymes or enhancing the activity or expression of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most well-known antioxidants which can be obtained exogenously from the diet or supplements or endogenously from de novo synthesis primarily in the liver. The intracellular content of GSH is a balance between depletion/breakdown and replenishment/synthesis. The aim of this review is to update the current approaches to study properties and mechanisms of action of endogenous and exogenous GST with emphasis on the chemical and biological systems.

 

Keywords: Antioxidants, free radicals, oxidative stress, glutathione

 

Cite this Article

Haile Nega Mulata. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Glutathione in the Detoxification of Free Radicals. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Toxicology. 2017; 7(1): 1–14p.


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