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Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Acute Toxicity Study of Ethanolic Extract of Launaea taraxacifolia on Visceral Organs of Albino Rats

Adekunle A. Adesiyan, Olugbenga J. Dairo, Florence I. Aboderin, Moses O. Akiibinu, Oluwabukola F. Adesiyan

Abstract


Despite increase in the acceptance of herbs for the treatment of certain diseases, there are limited information on the effectiveness, safety and toxicity of herbs. In this study, proximate analysis, phytochemical screening and acute toxicity studies on the herbal recipe, Launaea taraxacifolia were carried out. Constituents of Launaea taraxacifolia were extracted using ethanol.  Phytochemical screening and proximate analysis were carried out on the extract.  Fifteen (15) albino rats, divided into five groups were used for the toxicity study. The controls (group1) were fed with normal feed without extract while varied concentrations of the extract of Launaea taraxacifolia were administered orally into other groups (group II=500 mg/kg, group III=1000 mg/kg, group IV=2000 mg/kg and group V=3000 mg/kg) were used for this study. The albino rats were then monitored for signs of toxicity for 24 h. The result of phytochemical screening showed that the ethanolic extract contained flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides and tannin. In the proximate analysis of the extracts, the ethanolic extract showed high calorific value (280.70+ 0.80 Kcal/100 g), total carbohydrate (18.59 + 1.33%), crude protein (17.67 + 1.20%), crude fibre (16. 06 + 0.05%), total ash (21.50 + 0.07%), moisture content (23.14 + 0.50%) and crude fat (4.70 + 0.03%). After administered into the albino rats, the body and organ weight (liver and kidney) were not affected by the administered extracts of Launaea taraxacifolia. None of the albino rats died throughout the period of acute toxicity studies and up till seven days of further examination. Histopathology tests on liver and kidney showed visible morphological changes and altered affinity for Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. Morphological changes and altered affinity for Haematoxylin and Eosin stain observed in liver and kidneys of albino rats treated with ethanolic extract of Launaea taraxacifolia could be due to the concentration of the extract in the organs for excretion and metabolism.

 

Keywords: Toxicity, Launaea taraxacifolia, ethanolic extract, phytochemicals, proximate


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