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Effects of Chlorpyrifos as Inducer for Oxidative Stress in Liver, Kidney and Spleen of Freshwater Fish, Pseudetroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795)

KP Raibeemol, KC Chitra

Abstract


Chlorpyrifos is one of the most common organophosphate insecticides found abundantly in freshwater ecosystems and has been detected in agricultural and fishery products worldwide. The study focused to determine the effect of chlorpyrifos on the induction of oxidative stress in freshwater fish Pseudetroplus maculatus. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (0.661 and 1.32 μg/l) of chlorpyrifos for 15 and 30 days. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of hydrogen peroxide generation, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide were analyzed in the immune cells such as liver, kidney and spleen of the fish. The observations showed decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) with concomitant increase in levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Besides, the level of nitric oxide was also increased at both sublethal concentrations in all tissues when compared to the corresponding control group. The present study revealed that chlorpyrifos exposure enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) thereby resulting in oxidative damage to tissues and alter antioxidant defense system of the fish. Thus, chlorpyrifos at sublethal concentrations showed adverse effects on P. maculatus and its widespread use should be minimized to conserve the fish population in natural aquatic environment.

 

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Pseudetroplus maculatus, liver, kidney, spleen, oxidative stress

 

Cite this Article

Raibeemol KP, Chitra KC. Effects of Chlorpyrifos as Inducer for Oxidative Stress in Liver, Kidney and Spleen of Freshwater Fish, Pseudetroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795). Research & Reviews: A Journal of Toxicology. 2018; 8(1): 20–29p.


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