Antibacterial, Cytotoxicity Studies of Azukia mungo (L.) Masam and Correlation with in silico Docking Studies

K. Akilandeswari, M. Vijayalaksmi, K. Kavitha, Girija M.

Abstract


Introduction and Background: Azukia genus plants rich in proteinaceous anti-nutrients like tannins (especially condensed tannins) has been shown to have anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and antineoplastic activity against lung and liver cancer cells. Five types of procyanidins (condensed tannins) have already been isolated from Azukia mungo and structurally elucidated. But its activity against the Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has not yet been shown. Hence we focus our work in exploring the antibacterial activity against MRSA strain along with the investigation of anticancer activity against HeLa cells. Methods: Azukia mungo seeds were collected and extracted. The extracted seeds were subjected to phytochemical screening to identify the chemical constituents. Qualitative identification of tannins in the extracts was performed through HPTLC using n-butanol: glacial acetic acid water as solvent system. The antibacterial and anticancer activity was predicted using flexible (GEM dock software) docking of procyanidins as ligands against several MRSA receptors and cervical cancer responsible receptors. The MTT assay was used to make an assessment of tumor-inhibitory action of Azukia mungo extract of acetone and water on HeLa cells. Results and findings: The various extracts of Vigna mungo were subjected to screening for its phytochemical constituents that showed the presence of specific constituents like alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and steroids. In HPTLC, the extract peaks in the graph compared to the standard peak tannic acid were found to be 0.05 and 0.81 retention factors. Results of docking studies showed higher docking energy that implies good binding energy and hence more efficiency in blocking the activity of particular protein. The good binding energy of the ligand with active site of the receptor revealed –133.47 kcal/mol for MRSA receptor, and cancer receptor –108.45 kcal/mol. For MRSA and cervical cancer, maximum docking energy was exhibited between procyanidin A2 with 2YVW (penicillin binding protein receptor) and procyanidin B1 with HMG CoA reductase. This has been subsequently proved in the zone of inhibition of 27 and 17 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration of 62.5 and 125 μg/ml and in cytotoxicity studies, HeLa cell viability was reduced significantly in 24 h treatment. In 200 μg, percentage cell viability of acetone extract was 52.54% and in 250 μg, percentage cell viability of water extract was 48.66%. Conclusion: The increasingly widespread emergence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics may be overcome partially by utilizing these natural compounds from Azukia mungo which was screened and its effectiveness against MRSA as alternative approaches, thereby reducing the additional usage of antibiotics. However, further improvements in the chemical structure of the drugs are needed to produce a newer class of drugs to treat MRSA infections and anti-cancer drugs.
Keywords: Phytochemical screening, in silico docking, antibacterial, cytotoxicity studies, Azukia mungo

Cite this Article
Akilandeswari K, Vijayalaksmi M, Kavitha K et al. Antibacterial, Cytotoxicity Studies of Azukia mungo (L.) Masam and Correlation with in silico Docking Studies. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Toxicology. 2017; 7(2): 21–31p.



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