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Classical and Advance Literature of Muscle (‘Aḍala): A Review

Abul Faiz, Ferasat Ali


Background: According to Nafis, muscles are formed by viscous blood which becomes thick due to heat and dissolution of water present in blood dissolves due to heat. Hence consistency of blood becomes soft, loose and then it takes the shape of flesh. Rhazi and Majusi described that muscles are composed of flesh, nerve and tendon. Purpose: An attempt was made to find out the classical literature and existence of muscle and recent advancement of muscle. Methodology: Classical Unani literature and advance literature were analysed to reach the conclusion. Conclusion: Unani scholar mentioned in his books that muscle is formed by blood, and composed of nerves and tendons. But in advance stage it is clear that muscle tissues are derived from mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cell.


muscle, flesh, tendon, mesoderm

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