Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Health Instruction Module (HIM) on Knowledge Regarding Varicose Vein and DVT and its Preventive Measures Among Laborers in Selected Small Scale Industries at Greater Noida

Komila Singh


Varicose veins square measure veins that became enlarged and tortuous. The term usually refers to the
veins on the leg, though unhealthy veins will occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to stop blood
from flowing backwards (retrograde flow or reflux). Leg muscles pump the veins to come back blood
to the Heart (the calf muscle pump mechanism), against the results of gravity. When veins become
unhealthy, the leaflets of the valves now not meet properly, and the valves do not work (valvular
incompetence). This permits blood to flow backwards and that they enlarge even more. Deep vein
thrombosis or deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in a deep vein. A clot within a vessel is
named as occlusion. DVT predominantly occurs in the legs. When symptoms are present for clots in the
leg, the nonspecific signs embody pain, swelling, redness, warmness, and full superficial veins. The
present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of health instructional module on varicose vein
and DVT and its preventive measures among laborers of selected small scale industries of Greater

Full Text:



Rush MD, Schoenfeld CN, et al. Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid. Am J Emerg Med. 1998; 16(5): 508–511.

Schonauer V, Kyrle PA, et al. Superficial thrombophlebitis and risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism. J Vasc Surg. 2003; 37(4): 834–838.

Patrick H Carpentier, Hildegard R Maricq, et al. Prevalence risk factors and clinical patterns of chronic venous disorders of lower limbs. J Vasc Surg. 2004; 40(4): 650–659.

Tüchsen F, Hannerz H, et al. Prolonged standing at work and hospitalization due to varicose veins. Occup Environ Med. 2005; 62(12): 847–850.

Wikipedia. (2017, Feb), Society of Interventional Radiology- Patient center, [Online] Available from: › wiki ›

Waters Thomas R, Dick, et al. evidence of health risks associated with prolonged standing at work and intervention effectiveness. Rehabil Nurs. 2015; 40(3): 148–165. (2017, Feb) The Boston Globe. [Online] Available from: › wiki ›

Phillippe HM. Overview of venous thromboembolism. Am J Manag Care. 2017; 23(20): 376–382.

Stvrtinová V, Kolesár J, et al. Prevalence of varicose veins of the lower limbs in the women working at a department store. Int Angiol. 1991; 10(1): 2–5.

Chan WS, Spencer FA, Ginsberg JS, et al. Anatomic distribution of deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy. Can Med Assoc J. 2010; 182(7): 657–60.

Malhotra SL. An epidemiological study of varicose veins in Indian railroad workers from the south and north of India. Int J Epidemiol. 1972; 1(2): 177–183.



  • There are currently no refbacks.