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Bone in Periodontal Health and Diseases: A Scoping Review

Vindeshwari Bhatia, Ashadeep K., Ajay Mahajan, Kanwarjit Singh Asi

Abstract


Bone resorption is a basic physiologic process and central to the understanding of many key pathologies. Alveolar bone destruction is a hallmark of periodontal disease progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in treatment of periodontal disease. Bone loss is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. As individuals are not equally susceptible to the destructive effects of periodontal infections therefore, it is clear that variability in host responses among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of these diseases in the population. However, the mechanisms explaining the immune responses against pathogenic bacteria are not clear and remained to be established. Moreover, a paradigm shift in the field of osteoimmunology, which is based on growing evidence for a role of both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in controlling normal and pathological skeletal turnover and the cells responsible for bone remodelling, has given rise to a new discipline over the past decade. Therefore the purpose of writing this review article is to describe and highlight the various mechanisms of alveolar bone resorption at the molecular and cellular levels and sheds light on recent research contributions and future directions from a clinical perspective for new diagnostic and treatment modalities in the management of  periodontal diseases.


Keywords


Bone, alveolar bone, bone remodelling, periodontal diseases, host immune responses

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