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Sudanese Snuff and Oral Cancer: An Overview

Mohamed B. Elfayeg, Yousif I. Eltohami


Toombak is a locally made tobacco product from the leaves of Nicotiana rustica in Sudan. This homemade product contains an extensive amount of carcinogenic nitrosamines which are believed to have an integral role in the development of oral cancer. Toombak consumption is common among the Sudan inhabitants, causing an increased rate of oral cancer patients. Methodology: Based on the indexed previous articles, published reviews (Pubmed), and Google scholar, we review the outlines of oral cancer then discuss the relation between oral cancer and Sudanese toombak.


Toombak, snuff dipping, oral cancer, tobacco specific nitrosamines, TSNA biomarkers, HPV

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