Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Impact of Age Difference and Diet of Mother on the Microbiota of Human Breast Milk

Shuja Shafi Bhat, Meenakshi .


Aim: This study aimed to investigate the impact of age difference and diet of mother on the microbiota of Human Breast Milk. Human Breast milk is a complex bio-fluid that provides the nutrients and bioactive agents, including bacteria, which are necessary for the development of the infant gut microbiota. Human milk microorganisms contribute significantly for the healthy development of the immune system in infants, along with shaping the gut microbiota. Method: Breast milk samples were collected from 20 mothers in sterile containers. Serial dilutions of the samples were prepared and both the pure samples as well as diluted samples were cultured on various Culture Medias. Growth obtained after incubation from different Culture Medias was observed and further isolation was done. After the isolated growth was obtained on the Culture Medias the identification was done with the help of Gram Staining. Result: The investigation revealed that the Breast Milk of older age mothers was rich in microbiota than the young age mothers. Significant growth was seen on the culture plates inoculated with the milk sample from older age mothers. Remarkable effect was also seen associated with diet of mother. Mothers with proper balanced diet (both veg. and non-veg.) had a rich microbiota than the mothers with poor diet which was obvious from the growth patterns obtained after inoculating the Culture Medias. Also, more growth was seen in case of pure breast milk samples after inoculation than the diluted milk samples. Conclusion: After analysing the Human Breast Milk samples, it was observed that the age of mother and diet of the mother are important factors determining the composition of Human Breast Milk (HBM) microbiota.


Bio-fluid, Microorganisms, Microbiota, Gram Staining, Human Breast Milk

Full Text:



Hunt, K.M.; Foster, J.A.; Forney, L.J.; Schutte, U.M.; Beck, D.L.; Abdo, Z.; Fox, L.K.; Williams, J.E.; McGuire, M.K.; McGuire, M.A. Characterization of the diversity and temporal stability of bacterial communities in human milk.

Jost, T.; Lacroix, C.; Chassard, C. Assessment of bacterial diversity in breast milk using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.

Fitzstevens, J.L.; Smith, K.C.; Hagadorn J.I.; Caimano, M.J.; Matson, A.P.; Brownell, E.A. Systematic review of the human milk microbiota. Nutr. Clin. Pract. 2016.

Urbaniak, C.; Angelini, M.; Gloor, G.B.; Reid, G. Human milk microbiota profiles in relation to birthing method, gestation and infant gender. Microbiome 2016.

Jacobsson B, Ladfors L, Milsom I. Advanced maternal age and adverse perinatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104: 727–733.

Haney PM. Glucose transport in lactation. Adv Exp Med Biol 2004;

Bradbury, J. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain. Nutrients 2011, 3, 529–554.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Research & Reviews: A Journal of Health Professions

This Journal archive has been shifted to: