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Determinants of Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood in Ethiopia: Analysis of the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey 2016

Mengistu Mitiku, Molla Teferi, Assefa Ayalew, Mussie Tesfay


Background: Teenage pregnancy, a global public health problem, especially in developing countries, refers to a pregnancy when teenage girls, aged 13–19 and considered not to have reached legal adulthood, become pregnant and is said to have wide range of subsequent adverse health, economic and social outcomes. In Ethiopia, where marriage is a universal occurrence, the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia ministry of health is working to alleviate the problem, though there is inadequate research work and discrepancy in the determinants of teenage pregnancy across the different waves of Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Method: Demographic health survey data set on teenage pregnancy and motherhood authorization letter was requested in July 23, 2018 and we were approved to use the data sets on the same day, at
The study focused on teenage mothers, aged 1519 years. The dependent variable was ‘teenage pregnancy’ and the independent variables were socio-demographic variables like age, residence, educational status, region, religion, ethnicity, frequency of listening to radio and television and wealth index. Data for this study were extracted from the EDHS 2016 surveys. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for categorical variables and were cross tabulated with the dependent variable, teenage pregnancy. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify variables that have significant association with the dependent variable, teenage pregnancy. Result: A total of 3498 teenagers, aged from 15 to 19 years were considered in the analysis. Of the 3498 teenagers, around three quarter of them, 2094 (59.9%) were aged 15–17 years. Age, residence, educational status and wealth index were statistically significant determinants of teenage pregnancy. Teenagers whose resided in the range 18–19 years (AOR=5.09, 95% CI: 3.322–7.794), being a dweller of rural area (AOR=1.72, 95% CI 1.29–1.74), being a primary level learner and below (AOR=0.40, 95% CI 0.21–0.78) and being from the richest family in terms of wealth index (AOR=0.20, 95% CI 0.07–0.57) were independent predictors of teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that age, educational status, residence and wealth index are determinants of teenage pregnancy in Ethiopia.


Keywords: Teenage pregnancy, determinants, EDHS, Ethiopia


Teenage pregnancy, Determinants, EDHS, Ethiopia

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