Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

The Cognitive Renaissance: Transforming Your Mind with Innovative Techniques

Subhi Jain, Neelam Balekar


Cognitive abilities play a crucial role in our daily lives, as they impact our capacity to concentrate and stay focused on tasks. When cognitive impairments occur, domains such as working memory, executive function, attentiveness, and knowledge acquisition can be negatively affected. Fortunately, intervention programs have been shown to enhance cognitive abilities and improve daily functioning. Regardless of age, various intervention programs can improve multiple aspects of cognitive functioning. In this literature review, we investigated the training program's impact on healthy people's cognitive functions. According to the study, numerous intervention strategies can enhance executive functions, verbal memory, selective attention, processing power, and overall cognitive ability/IQ. These programs range from meditation and yoga therapy to video games and physical exercise. Research has demonstrated that these programs can lead to significant improvements in working memory, attention, and executive function. Some programs may also have limitations in terms of their accessibility, cost, and sustainability. Future research should aim to address these limitations and evaluate the long-term effects of cognitive intervention programs. With continued research, we can unlock the full potential of cognitive intervention programs and enhance cognitive functioning for individuals of all ages.


Brain training, interventions, memory, behavioral therapy, yoga therapy

Full Text:



Campbell RJ. Campbell's psychiatric dictionary. 8th Edn. Oxford, New York: Oxford university

press; 2004.

Ben Linders Guest. (2016 Jun 3). Guest Blog: Cognition . . . what’s it all about? [Online]. Accessed

on 18/03/2023. Available from:


Boissonnault È, Higgins J, LaGarde G, Barthélemy D, Lamarre C, H Dagher J. Brain stimulation

in attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: a literature review and feasibility study. Pilot

Feasibility Stud. 2021 May 31; 7(1): 115.

Corbetta M, Shulman GL. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nat

Rev Neurosci. 2002 Mar; 3(3): 201–15.

Grill-Spector K, Malach R. The human visual cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2004; 27: 649–77. doi:

1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144220. PMID: 15217346.

Baddeley A. Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003 Oct;

(10): 829–39. doi: 10.1038/nrn1201. PMID: 14523382.

Bunge SA, Kahn I, Wallis JD, Miller EK, Wagner AD. Neural circuits subserving the retrieval and

maintenance of abstract rules. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Nov; 90(5): 3419–28. doi:

1152/jn.00910.2002. Epub 2003 Jul 16. PMID: 12867532.

Mancinetti M, Guttormsen S, Berendonk C. Cognitive load in internal medicine: What every

clinical teacher should know about cognitive load theory. Eur J Intern Med. 2019 Feb; 60: 4–8. doi:

1016/j.ejim.2018.08.013. Epub 2018 Sep 1. PMID: 30181017.

Park DC, Reuter-Lorenz P. The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaffolding. Annu Rev

Psychol. 2009; 60: 173–96. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093656. PMID: 19035823;

PMCID: PMC3359129.

Lim J, Dinges DF. A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on cognitive

variables. Psychol Bull. 2010 May; 136(3): 375–89. doi: 10.1037/a0018883. PMID: 20438143;

PMCID: PMC3290659.

Colcombe S, Kramer AF. Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic

study. Psychol Sci. 2003 Mar; 14(2): 125–30. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.t01-1-01430. PMID:

Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Aggarwal N, Schneider J, Wilson

RS. Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003 Feb; 60(2): 194–

doi: 10.1001/archneur.60.2.194. Erratum in: Arch Neurol. 2003 Aug; 60(8): 1072. PMID:

Lupien SJ, de Leon M, de Santi S, Convit A, Tarshish C, Nair NP, Thakur M, McEwen BS, Hauger

RL, Meaney MJ. Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory

deficits. Nat Neurosci. 1998 May; 1(1): 69–73. doi: 10.1038/271. Erratum in: Nat Neurosci 1998

Aug; 1(4): 329. PMID: 10195112.

Takeuchi H, Taki Y, Nouchi R, Hashizume H, Sekiguchi A, Kotozaki Y, Nakagawa S, Miyauchi

CM, Sassa Y, Kawashima R. Effects of working memory training on functional connectivity and

cerebral blood flow during rest. Cortex. 2013 Sep; 49(8): 2106–25. doi:

1016/j.cortex.2012.09.007. Epub 2012 Sep 20. PMID: 23079491.

Beck AT, editor. Cognitive therapy of depression. Guilford press; 1979.

Liu Y, Li Y, Zhang J, Xu J, Wang L, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy improves attentional control

in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial. Front Aging

Neurosci. 2018; 10: 384.

Zhang Y, Zhou B, Li W, Li M, Li Y, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy for older adults with mild

cognitive impairment and its impact on cognition: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Alzheimer's Dis. 2017; 59(2): 531–542.

Bahar-Fuchs A, Martyr A, Goh AM, Sabates J, Clare L. Cognitive training for people with mild to

moderate dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 25; 3(3): CD013069. doi:

1002/14651858.CD013069.pub2. PMID: 30909318; PMCID: PMC6433473.

Carbone E, Lega C, De Marco, M, Sinforiani E. Brain plasticity in mild cognitive impairment and

Alzheimer’s disease: Evidence from cognitive rehabilitation and neuroimaging studies. J

Alzheimer's Dis. 2019; 67(2): 671–687.

Katz PP, Pate R. Exercise as Medicine. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Dec 20; 165(12): 880–881. doi:

7326/M16-2086. Epub 2016 Sep 27. PMID: 27668671.

Kelly ME, Loughrey D, Lawlor BA, Robertson IH, Walsh C, Brennan S. The impact of exercise on

the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing

Res Rev. 2014 Jul; 16: 12–31. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2014.05.002. Epub 2014 May 23. PMID:

Telles S, Singh N, Bhardwaj AK, Kumar A, Balkrishna A. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on

physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial. Child

Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2013 Nov 7; 7(1): 37. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-7-37. PMID:

; PMCID: PMC3826528.

Mooventhan A, Nivethitha L. Evidence based effects of yoga in neurological disorders. J Clin

Neurosci. 2017 Sep; 43: 61–67. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.05.012. Epub 2017 Jun 7. PMID: 28599839.

Riley D. Hatha yoga and the treatment of illness. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Mar–Apr; 10(2):

–1. PMID: 15055088.

Hariprasad VR, Koparde V, Sivakumar PT, Varambally S, Thirthalli J, Varghese M, Basavaraddi

IV, Gangadhar BN. Randomized clinical trial of yoga-based intervention in residents from elderly

homes: Effects on cognitive function. Indian J Psychiatry. 2013 Jul; 55(Suppl 3): S357–63. doi:

4103/0019-5545.116308. PMID: 24049199; PMCID: PMC3768212.

Hayes M, Chase S. Prescribing yoga. Prim Care. 2010 Mar; 37(1): 31–47. doi:

1016/j.pop.2009.09.009. PMID: 20188996.

Ross A, Thomas S. The health benefits of yoga and exercise: a review of comparison studies. J

Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jan; 16(1): 3–12. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0044. PMID: 20105062.

Yadav A, Verma S, Panwar M, Yadav NK. Role of Yoga Practices on Cognitive Functions: A

Review. Int J Health Sci. 2022; 6(SIII): 3288–3304.

NCCIH. Meditation and Mindfulness: What You Need To Know. [Online].

Garland SN. Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for addiction, stress, and pain. J

Psychopharmacol. 2018; 32(7): 757–768.

Morgan N, Irwin MR, Chung M, Wang C. The effects of mind-body therapies on the immune

system: meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 2; 9(7): e100903. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100903.

PMID: 24988414; PMCID: PMC4079606.

Kok BE, Coffey KA, Cohn MA, Catalino LI, Vacharkulksemsuk T, Algoe SB, Brantley M,

Fredrickson BL. How positive emotions build physical health: perceived positive social

connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychol Sci.

Jul 1; 24(7): 1123–32. doi: 10.1177/0956797612470827. Epub 2013 May 6. Erratum in:

Psychol Sci. 2016 Jun;27(6):931. PMID: 23649562.

Takeuchi H, Sekiguchi A, Taki Y, Yokoyama S, Yomogida Y, Komuro N, Yamanouchi T, Suzuki

S, Kawashima R. Training of working memory impacts structural connectivity. J Neurosci. 2010

Mar 3; 30(9): 3297–303. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4611-09.2010. PMID: 20203189; PMCID:


Takeuchi H, Taki Y, Sassa Y, Hashizume H, Sekiguchi A, Fukushima A, Kawashima R. Working

memory training using mental calculation impacts regional gray matter of the frontal and parietal

regions. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8): e23175. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023175. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

PMID: 21886781; PMCID: PMC3160301.

Nouchi R, Taki Y, Takeuchi H, Hashizume H, Nozawa T, Kambara T, Sekiguchi A, Miyauchi CM,

Kotozaki Y, Nouchi H, Kawashima R. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working

memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013;

(2): e55518. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055518. Epub 2013 Feb 6. PMID: 23405164; PMCID:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Research & Reviews: Journal of Neuroscience