Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

The effective therapeutic strategies to fight against COVID-19 in India

Shivani Manglic, Sakshi Malhotra, Anil Kumar Mavi, Dinesh kumar


In December 2019, the global pandemic coronavirus infection (COVID-19) was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, Central China. It is caused by coronavirus-2, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). This was declared by World Health Organization on 11th March 2020. In India, the first case of COVID-19 infection was reported in Kerala on January 27,2020 of a 20 yr old female presented to an Emergency Department in General Hospital, Thrissur, Kerala. Since then, many government and health officials are trying hard to combat with this perniciousness novel coronavirus disease. It is known that coronavirus enters into human cells by the help of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) receptor. The infection starts in the cells of the respiratory mucosa and then spreads to the lungs' alveolar epithelial cells. The receptor facilitates in the binding and release of nucleocapsid into the cell by fusing the viral membrane with the host cell membrane. The virus subsequently replicates and produces viral RNAs and proteins using the host machinery. These are assembled into new viral particles called virions by budding into intracellular membranes. The release of new virus particles causes the host cells to die. This replication cycle study of the virus gives new insight for the development of potential drugs and vaccines for treatment of coronavirus disease. In the first wave of the pandemic, hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial medicine, was shown to be effective for coronavirus patients, but it was no longer regarded therapeutic in the second wave of the Delta variant. Instead, another drug called Remdesivir became more prevalent in second wave. Although, the omicron variant showed milder effects with less death rate. In this review, therapeutic strategies including potential drugs and effective vaccines are to be discussed to fight effectively against the disease.


COVID-19, CoVs, clinical trials, drug, therapy, viral vectors

Full Text:



Kayali G, Peiris M. A more detailed picture of the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2015; 15(5): 495–7.

Milne-Price S, Miazgowicz KL, Munster VJ. The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Pathog Dis 71: 121–136.

Woo PC, Lau SK, Chu CM, Chan KH, Tsoi HW, Huang Y, Wong BH, Poon RW, Cai JJ, Luk WK, Poon LL. Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. Journal of virology. 2005; 79(2): 884–95.

Perlman S, Netland J. Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009; 7: 439–450.

Hocke AC, Becher A, Knepper J, Peter A, Holland G, Tönnies M, Bauer TT, Schneider P, Neudecker J, Muth D, Wendtner CM. Emerging human middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus causes widespread infection and alveolar damage in human lungs. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2013; 188(7): 882–6.

Woo PC, Lau SK, Li KS, Tsang AK, Yuen KY. Genetic relatedness of the novel human group C betacoronavirus to Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 and Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5. Emerging microbes & infections. 2012; 1(1): 1–5.

Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, Whittaker GR. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein. Viruses. 2012; 4(6): 1011–33.

Beniac DR, Andonov A, Grudeski E, Booth TF. Architecture of the SARS coronavirus prefusion spike. Nature structural & molecular biology. 2006; 13(8): 751–2.

Neuman BW, Kiss G, Kunding AH, Bhella D, Baksh MF, Connelly S, Droese B, Klaus JP, Makino S, Sawicki SG, Siddell SG. A structural analysis of M protein in coronavirus assembly and morphology. Journal of structural biology. 2011; 174(1): 11–22.

Nal B, Chan C, Kien F, Siu L, Tse J, Chu K, Kam J, Staropoli I, Crescenzo-Chaigne B, Escriou N, van der Werf S. Differential maturation and subcellular localization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus surface proteins S, M and E. Journal of general virology. 2005; 86(5): 1423–34.

Arndt AL, Larson BJ, Hogue BG. A conserved domain in the coronavirus membrane protein tail is important for virus assembly. Journal of virology. 2010; 84(21): 11418–28.

Singh AK, Singh A, Singh R, Misra A. Remdesivir in COVID-19: a critical review of pharmacology, pre-clinical and clinical studies. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2020; 14(4): 641–8.

Uzunova K, Filipova E, Pavlova V, Vekov T. Insights into antiviral mechanisms of remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine affecting the new SARS-CoV-2. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2020; 131: 110668.

Singh AK, Singh A, Shaikh A, Singh R, Misra A. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 with or without diabetes: A systematic search and a narrative review with a special reference to India and other developing countries. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2020; 14(3): 241–6.

Owa AB, Owa OT. Lopinavir/ritonavir use in Covid-19 infection: is it completely non-beneficial?. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. 2020; 53(5): 674–5.

Heidary F, Gharebaghi R. Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2020: 1–10.

Heidary F, Gharebaghi R. Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen. The Journal of antibiotics. 2020; 73(9): 593–602.

Coomes EA, Haghbayan H. Favipiravir, an antiviral for COVID-19?. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2020; 75(7): 2013–4.

Cai Q, Yang M, Liu D, Chen J, Shu D, Xia J, Liao X, Gu Y, Cai Q, Yang Y, Shen C. Experimental treatment with favipiravir for COVID-19: an open-label control study. Engineering. 2020; 6(10): 1192–8.

Perez A, Jansen‐Chaparro S, Saigi I, Bernal‐Lopez MR, Miñambres I, Gomez‐Huelgas R. Glucocorticoid‐induced hyperglycemia. Journal of diabetes. 2014; 6(1): 9–20.

Wu R, Wang L, Kuo HC, Shannar A, Peter R, Chou PJ, Li S, Hudlikar R, Liu X, Liu Z, Poiani GJ. An update on current therapeutic drugs treating COVID-19. Current pharmacology reports. 2020; 6(3): 56–70.

Costanzo L, Palumbo FP, Ardita G, Antignani PL, Arosio E, Failla G. Coagulopathy, thromboembolic complications, and the use of heparin in COVID-19 pneumonia. Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders. 2020; 8(5): 711–6.

Cai X, Ren M, Chen F, Li L, Lei H, Wang X. Blood transfusion during the COVID-19 outbreak. Blood Transfusion. 2020; 18(2): 79.

Kumar S, Sharma V, Priya K. Battle against COVID-19: Efficacy of Convalescent Plasma as an emergency therapy. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2021; 41: 244.

Singh K, Mehta S. The clinical development process for a novel preventive vaccine: An overview. Journal of postgraduate medicine. 2016; 62(1): 4.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Research & Reviews: A Journal of Toxicology