Shiqaq-e-Maqad (Fissure in Ano) As Per Unani System of Medicine

Rabia Nizam, Mohammad Shakeel Ansari


Anal fissure is one of the most common anorectal condition encountered in clinical practice. It is a longitudinal split in the anoderm, with surrounding oedema and inflammatory induration which causes painful defecation, bleeding with streaks of blood on the surface of stool or on toilet paper and itching per rectum. As per Modern aspect, the aetiology of anal fissure is not known. They generally arise with local trauma caused by hard stool and hypertonic anal sphincter. As per Unani system of medicine, it was mentioned as shigaaf in anal canal by almost all Unani physicians in their classical textbooks. The most common cause is Sue Mizaj Har Yabis of Maqad and passage of dry hard stool. Several Unani formulations are written in classical texts for the treatment of anal fissures. So, aim of this article is to enumerate briefly about shiqaq-e-maqad, its causes, sign and symptoms and its management in the light of Unani system of medicine.


Hypertonic anal sphincter; anal fissure; Shiqaq-e-Maqad; Topical application


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