Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Family Burden of Tuberculosis on Female Patients

Arpita Hundawal, Pragya Sharma, Maliram Aswal


Tuberculosis (TB) affects mostly economically active populations in underdeveloped and developing countries, therefore TB can have far-reaching economic and social consequences among infected people and other members of their family. TB is the second leading reason behind death worldwide amongst communicable diseases. TB kills approximately 1 million women in a year and is chargeable for more deaths in women within the reproductive people. The burden assessment schedule (BAS) has been developed from the angle of the chronic mentally ill and consequently would be most applicable to the present group. It may well be conceptualized that this instrument is also able to predict burnout in persons caring for a chronically mentally ill person. With nuclear families rapidly replacing joint families especially in urban areas and with increasing numbers of ladies within the manpower, caring for the mentally disabled member is commonly shouldered by one caregiver. This naturally increases the probabilities of the blow which should be recognized early for effective intervention. We believe that, by measuring both subjective and objective burdens, the BAS is sensitive enough to detect early symptoms of burnout. While the BAS could also be relevant and applicable to measuring burden in other chronic illness groups, a decent deal and more research must be met out before this might be established with certainty.


BAS (score), communicable disease, family burden, female patient, pulmonary tuberculosis, social work study

Full Text:



World Health Organization. (2005). Global tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning, financing: WHO report 2005. [Online] Available from

Sell H, Thara R, Padmavati R, Kumar S. The Burden Assessment Schedule (BAS): No. 27. South-East Asia: WHO Regional Publications; 1998.

Connolly M, Nunn P. Women and tuberculosis. World Health Statistics Quarterly. 1996; 49(2): 115–119.

Gurung GN, Chhetri PS, Jha N. Economic impact of pulmonary tuberculosis on patients and their families of Dharan municipality, Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J. 2012; 14(3): 196–198.

Yadav S, Goel S, Agrawal A. Burden of tuberculosis in females in rural area at a tertiary care centre. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015; 7(1): 108–110.

World Health Organization. (2010). World health statistics 2010. [Online] Available from: 7. International Labour Organization, World Health Organization. (2009). A joint crisis initiative of the UN chief executives board for coordination on the social protection floor. [Online] Available from

Scheil-Adlung X. Health workforce benchmarks for universal health coverage and sustainable development. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2013; 91(11): 797–896.

Lonnaroth K, Giovanni BM, et al. Towards tuberculosis elimination: an action framework in low-incidence countries. 2015; 45(4): 928–952.

Ahn DI, World Health Organization. (2005). Addressing poverty in TB control: options for national TB control programmes (No. WHO/HTM/TB/2005.352). [Online] Available from 11. Fried ST, Khurshid A, Tarlton D, et al. Universal health coverage: necessary but not sufficient. Reproductive Health Matters. 2013; 21(42): 50–60.

Raviglione MC. The new stop TB strategy and the global plan to stop TB, 2006–2015. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007; 85(5): 327.

House C. Social protection interventions for tuberculosis control: the impact, the challenges, and the way forward. Meeting Summary: Centre for Global Health Security, Chatham House. London, United Kingdom. May 2012.

Hargreaves JR, Boccia D, Evans CA, Adato M, Petticrew M, Porter JD. The social determinants of tuberculosis: from evidence to action. American Journal of Public Health. 2011; 101(4): 654–662.

UNCDF U. (2011). Local government and social protection: making service delivery available for the most vulnerable. UN Capital Development Fund and United Nations Development Programme. [Online] Available from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Research & Reviews: Journal of Medical Science and Technology

This Journal archive has been shifted to: