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Diabetic Nephropathy: Diagnosis, Prognosis, Treatment Goals, and the most Recent Guidelines

Dhanashri V. Jambure, Roshan B. Badhe, Nitin S. Gosavi


Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious health issue. It affects 50 percent of diabetics, is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that necessitates dialysis or kidney transplantation, and is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Although persistent albuminuria and progressive decrease in kidney function are hallmarks of DN, it is becoming increasingly clear that the presentation and course of kidney disease in diabetes vary. The term kidney disease (DKD) is now widely used to describe the vast majority of diabetics who have albuminuria or reduced renal function. The clinical appearance and diagnosis of DKD, as well as its prognoses, will be covered in this article. DKD's general management principles will be reviewed and referred to the current international guidelines.


Diabetic nephropathy, diabetics, kidney transplantation, albuminuria, renal disease

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