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Hemoglobin Electrophoresis to Identify Adult Hemoglobin and Abnormal Hemoglobin Bands

N. Ganesh, Maisrah ., R.K. Singh, Alka Tiwari, Sameena Akhtar


According to National Thalassemia Welfare Society (NTWS) report, every year, around 3 to 4 lakhs babies are born with one or other form of hemoglobinopathies and around 7% of the world population is carrier of hemoglobinopathies. In India, hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, are one of the most common hereditary disorders and cause a major health problem. In India, incidence of sickle cell and β thalassemia differ from 0–44% and 0–17% respectively. Hb electrophoresis is a cost effective method of monitoring anemia and thalassemia in patients. Electrophoresis is the technique through which charged molecules are separated under the influence of electric field based on molecular size, molecular shape and charges. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is used to separate Adult Hemoglobin (HbA1, HbA2) and Abnormal Hemoglobins (HbS, HbSC, β-Thalassemia). Both normal and abnormal hemoglobin moved to the anode with varying degree of mobility. Adult Hemoglobin migrates with greater mobility then abnormal hemoglobin. The present review summarizes the various studies done to document the hemoglobinopathies prevalence worldwide and with special reference to tribal population of India and the tools and techniques available for its early detection for better management of the disease.


Hemoglobinopathies, hemoglobin electrophoresis, β-thalassemia, thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia, sickle cell anemia.

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